Simulation Based Design of Klystrons
The Klystron is a vacuum tube which used as an oscillator and amplifier of microwave signals. The magnetron is different from the klystron tube. The magnetron used only as an oscillator. In a klystron, the electron is injected normally from the cathode. But in the case of magnetron, the electrons are forcefully injected. In a klystron, the electrons move linearly in the tube and in the magnetron, the electrons follow a spiral path from cathode to anode. The klystron is used in TV transmitters, RADARs and particle accelerators. It is also used as a high power, narrowband stable amplifier. The magnetron used in microwave ovens, operating at 2.45 GHz. It is also used for RF heating, operating at 900 MHz or 2.45 GHz.
The relativistic klystron consists of several discrete elements including deflector cavity, a sector field magnet, a microwave resonator, a solenoid, and the drift spaces between each element. A derivation of the equations used to describe these elements with advanced simulation tools and developing new capability for this software to capture this elements and Tests of each element are performed to verify the validity of the approximations used in the numerical simulation. After the studying the klystron and its each element, the numerical simulation is then used to optimize initial design parameters in various operating parameters of the klystron.
Research and Development in Plasma Technologies
Simulation of Complex Systems to Gain Most Optimized Configuration with Advanced Technology
Magnetized plasma simulations of realistic devices using the kinetic or the multi-fluid plasma models are examples that benefit from high-order accuracy. The multi-fluid plasma model only assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium within each fluid, e.g. ion and electron fluids for the two-fluid plasma model.
Plasma Dynamics use advanced electromagnetic FEA, CFD and particle-in-cell (PIC) codes, designed for executing multi-scale, plasma physics simulations. Based on the problem and its detail, we use special commercial code or even develop new codes and subroutines to capture the interaction between charged particles (electrons and ions) and external and self-generated electric and magnetic fields.