Numerical Simulation of Magnetron sputtering
Magnetron sputtering deposition is a fast technique for applying a thin layer of inorganic materials on a substrate. Magnetron sputtering is the collision process between incident particles and targets. Since high-speed sputtering is performed at a low pressure, it is necessary to effectively increase the ionization rate of the gas. The incident particle undergoes a complex scattering process in the target, collides with the target atom, and transmits part of the momentum to the target atom, which in turn collides with other target atoms to form a cascade process.
the interaction between the magnetic field and the electric field causes the electrons to spiral in the vicinity of the target surface, thereby increasing the probability that electrons will strike the argon gas to generate ions. The generated ions collide with the target surface under the action of an electric field to sputter the target. The target source is divided into balanced and unbalanced types; the balanced target source is uniformly coated, and the unbalanced target coating layer and the substrate have strong bonding force.
Balanced target sources are mostly used in semiconductor optical films, and unbalanced are mostly used in wear decorative films. Sputtering metals and alloys with a magnetron target is easy, and it is convenient for ignition and sputtering. Magnetron reactive sputtering insulators appear to be easy, but it is difficult for practical operations.
- Unbalanced magnetron sputtering
- Closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering
- Pulsed magnetron sputtering
Numerical simulation of sputtering process requires accurate models of nuclear stopping in materials, particle dynamics and self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Based on the problem details, Particle‐in‐Cell/Monte Carlo Collisions technique it includes techniques for the gas heating and the diffusion transport of the sputtered atoms. An external electric circuit is incorporated to achieve the calculation of the cathode voltage in a self‐consistent manner, as well as the simulation of the constant current regime.
Research and Development in Plasma Technologies
Simulation of Complex Systems to Gain Most Optimized Configuration with Advanced Technology
Magnetized plasma simulations of realistic devices using the kinetic or the multi-fluid plasma models are examples that benefit from high-order accuracy. The multi-fluid plasma model only assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium within each fluid, e.g. ion and electron fluids for the two-fluid plasma model.
Plasma Dynamics use advanced electromagnetic FEA, CFD and particle-in-cell (PIC) codes, designed for executing multi-scale, plasma physics simulations. Based on the problem and its detail, we use special commercial code or even develop new codes and subroutines to capture the interaction between charged particles (electrons and ions) and external and self-generated electric and magnetic fields.